"The Science Of Tennis"
Bio-mechanics is the study of the effects of forces on the body when performing a task... the earth's gravity and the muscles' own elasticity. By understanding the bio-mechanics involved in hitting the ball, players are able to use their muscles in the most efficient and injury free ways. As the tennis player hits the ball and steps forward, energy is transferred from the back foot forward to the ball.
Segmental interaction is the transfer of energy from large to smaller joints of the body. This efficient transfer of energy is possible through the use of elastic energy when players prepare to hit a ball... the arm muscles of the hitting arm will stretch similar to a stretched elastic band. At this point there is so much elastic energy stored in the arm muscles... this stored elastic energy will quickly disappear as the muscles strive to return to their original form. Therefore, in order to maximize efficiency, a tennis player needs to maintain a high level of fluency in their technique in the transfer of energy. The forearm muscles pre-stretch in the middle of the stroke just before the ball is hit. That allows for a greater racquet-head speed with a very short and compact swing. This movement (where the forearm goes forward while the racquethead moves back) is used to stretch the forearm muscles and turn them into a rubber band mode.
Leg muscles also use elastic energy to assist the player with knee-bend into the hitting position... as low center-of-gravity allows the player to maintain greater balance and also more time to store energy that will transfer into the ball at impact. The body should continue its natural movement to finish with a good and complete follow-through to reduce physical stress on joints and muscles. This complete follow-through and finish phase allows the muscles to relax after each stroke so they are ready to do it again and again to finish the point.
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